Divine Attributes

A ‘Middle Knowledge’ Perspective on Divine Providence © 1999

Philosophers of religion have debated for centuries over how to reconcile the doctrines of divine providence and human freedom. Since these doctrines appear to be incompatible with each other, some thinkers have felt it necessary to either reject theism altogether or redefine the traditional concept of God. The following essay attempts to show that neither course of action is required. I argue that the theory of middle knowledge can reconcile these doctrines in a manner that is both theologically consistent and philosophically sound.